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WHEATSTONE (Charles): An Account of Some Experiments to Measure the Velocity of Electricity and the Duration of Electric Light, WITH: The Bakerian Lecture: An Account of Several New Instruments and Processes for Determining the Constants of a Voltaic Circuit,
First Editions, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, respectively from pp.583-591, from vol. 124, and pp.303-327 from vol 133, disbound, large quarto, very good copies, with a total of 4 engraved / lithographic plates (these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name), London, [The Royal Society], 1834 and 1843. * "Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802 -1875), English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era. Wheatstone is best known for his contributions in the development of the Wheatstone bridge, originally invented by Samuel Hunter Christie, which is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance, and as a major figure in the development of telegraphy. He achieved renown by a great experiment - the measurement of the velocity of electricity in a wire. He cut the wire at the middle, to form a gap which a spark might leap across, and connected its ends to the poles of a Leyden jar filled with electricity. Three sparks were thus produced, one at either end of the wire, and another at the middle. He mounted a tiny mirror on the works of a watch, so that it revolved at a high velocity, and observed the reflections of his three sparks in it. The points of the wire were so arranged that if the sparks were instantaneous, their reflections would appear in one straight line; but the middle one was seen to lag behind the others, because it was an instant later. The electricity had taken a certain time to travel from the ends of the wire to the middle. This time was found by measuring the amount of lag, and comparing it with the known velocity of the mirror. Having got the time, he had only to compare that with the length of half the wire, and he could find the velocity of electricity. His results gave a calculated velocity of 288,000 miles per second, i.e. faster than what we now know to be the speed of light, but were nonetheless an interesting approximation. It was afterwards found that the velocity of an electric field travelling in a cable depends on the nature of the conductor, its resistance, and its electro-static capacity. Michael Faraday showed, for example, that its velocity in a submarine wire, coated with insulator and surrounded with water, is only 144,000 miles per second (232,000 km/s), or still less. Wheatstone's device of the revolving mirror was afterwards employed by Léon Foucault and Hippolyte Fizeau to measure the velocity of light." -Wikipedia. "In 1843 Wheatstone published an experimental verification of Ohm's Law, helping to make the law (already well known in Germany) more familiar in England. In connection with the verification he developed new ways of measuring resistances and currents. In particular, he invented the rheostat and popularized the Wheatstone bridge." (D.S.B. 14: 290). (Book ref. 22262) £600.00
SMYTH (C. PIAZZI): Astronomical Experiment on the Peak of Teneriffe, carried out under the sanction of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.
First Edition, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 148, pp.465-533, disbound, large quarto, very good copy, with 10 fine lithographic plates, (these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name), London, [The Royal Society], 1858. * "In 1856 Smyth led an expedition to the Peak of Tenerife, primarily "to ascertain how much astronomical observation can be benefited by eliminating the lower third or fourth part of the atmosphere"...Financial support for this experiment was given by the British Admiralty, and moral support by the entire British scientific community. In addition to telescopic observations of planets and stars, Smyth measured the radiant heat of the moon; observed the solar spectrum and noted the lines of absorption were of terrestrial origin; and made various other observations of the meteorology, geology, and botany of the island."(DSB XII, p. 498-99) * "Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819 - 1900), was Astronomer Royal for Scotland from 1846 to 1888, and well-known for many innovations in astronomy. Isaac Newton wrote in Opticks ' ... [telescopes] ... cannot be so formed as to take away that confusion of the Rays which arises from the Tremors of the Atmosphere. The only Remedy is a most serene and quiet Air, such as may perhaps be found on the tops of the highest Mountains above the grosser Clouds.' This suggestion fell on deaf ears until in 1856, Smyth petitioned the Admiralty for a grant of £500 to take a telescope to the slopes of Teide in Tenerife (which he spelt Teneriffe) and test whether Newton had been right or not. The Admiralty approved his grant and he was offered the loan of further equipment from many sources. Robert Stephenson loaned his 140 ton yacht 'Titania' for the expedition. Mr. Hugh Pattinson loaned his refracting telescope of 7 inches (18 cm). This was a Thomas Cooke equatorial with setting circles and a driving clock. In 1856, on reaching Tenerife they first set up camp on Mount Guajara, a 8,900 ft (2,700 m) peak about 4 miles (6.4 km) south of Teide. It was higher than all its neighbours and free from any volcanic activity. They took all their equipment up loaded on mules, except for the Pattinson telescope which was much too bulky. They stayed there a month making astronomical, meteorological and geological observations. He made observations of the steadiness and clarity of star images with the 3.6-inch (9 cm) Sheepshanks telescope and found both much better than at Edinburgh. He also made the first positive detection of heat coming from the Moon. The scientific results were described in reports addressed to the Lord Commissioners of the Admiralty, the Royal Society, and the 'Astronomical Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh Vol XII 1863' which were widely acclaimed. Piazzi Smyth was the pioneer of the modern practice of placing telescopes at high altitudes to enjoy the best observing conditions." -Wikipedia (Book ref. 22269) £200.00
LYELL (Charles): Lyell's complete contributions to The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, being: 1). The Bakerian Lecture: On the Proofs of a Gradual Rising of the Land in Certain Parts of Sweden,
[continues] with 2). On the Structure of Lavas Which Have Consolidated on Steep Slopes; With Remarks on the Mode of Origin of Mount Etna, and on the Theory of "Craters of Elevation" disbound extracts from, respectively volume for 1835 vol, 125, pp.1-38; and volume for 1858, vol 148, pp. 703-904. With a total of 5 engraved plates, (these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name), London, [The Royal Society], 1835, 1838. * Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875), one of the greatest names in early geology, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1826. By 1827 he had already begun to plan his chief work, The Principles of Geology. The subsidiary title, "An Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth's Surface by Reference to Causes now in Operation," gives the keynote of the task to which Lyell devoted his life. The first volume of the Principles of Geology appeared in 1830, and the second in January 1832. Received at first with some opposition, so far as its leading theory was concerned, the work had ultimately a great success, and the two volumes had already reached a second edition in 1833 when the third, dealing with the successive formations of the earth's crust, was added. Between 1830 and 1872 eleven editions of this work were published, each so much enriched with new material and the results of riper thought as to form a complete history of the progress of geology during that interval. The Antiquity of Man, appeared in 1863, and ran through three editions in one year. In this he gave a general survey of the arguments for man's early appearance on the earth, derived from the discoveries of flint implements in post-Pliocene strata in the Somme valley and elsewhere; he discussed also the deposits of the Glacial epoch, and in the same volume he first gave in his adhesion to Darwin's theory of the origin of species. In 1834 he made an excursion to Denmark and Sweden, the result of which was his Bakerian lecture to the Royal Society "On the Proofs of the gradual Rising of Land in certain Parts of Sweden." (Book ref. 22268) £400.00
LUBBOCK (John William): On the Theory of the Moon. [Parts I and II, complete],
First Editions, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 124, pp., 123-126; 127-141, SEWN WITH: LUBBOCK (John William) On the Tides, op cit, pp.143-166, disbound, large quarto, very good copies, London, [The Royal Society],1834. * Sir John William Lubbock, 1803-1865. His researches into physical astronomy were directed towards simplifying methods, and introducing uniformity into the calculation of lunar and planetary perturbations. Mathematically, he was foremost among English mathematicians in adopting Laplace's doctrine of probability. He was the first Vice-Chancellor of London University (1837-1842). (Book ref. 22265) £100.00
KIDD (J.); HERSCHEL (John F. W.); HOME (Everard);: KIDD (J.) Observations on Naphthaline, a Peculiar Substance Resembling a Concrete Essential Oil, Which is Apparently Produced during the Decomposition of Coal Tar, by Exposure to a Red Heat,
First Edition, disbound extract from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society from vol 111 for 1821, pp.209-221 large quarto, London, [Royal Society], 1821. * THE FIRST FULL DESCRIPTION OF NAPHTHALINE. "In 1819-1820, at least two chemists reported a white solid with a pungent odor derived from the distillation of coal tar. In 1821, John Kidd described many of this substance's properties and the means of its production, and proposed the name naphthaline, as it had been derived from a kind of naphtha (a broad term encompassing any volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture, including coal tar). Naphthaline's chemical formula was determined by Michael Faraday in 1826. The structure of two fused benzene rings was proposed by Emil Erlenmeyer in 1866,[3] and confirmed by Carl Gräbe three years later." - Wikipedia. * Presented sewn with the following papers; HERSCHEL (John F. W.) On the Aberrations of Compound Lenses and Object-Glasses, pp. 222-267; HOME (Everard) An Account of the Skeletons of the Dugong, Two-Horned Rhinoceros, and Tapir of Sumatra, pp.268-275; HUTTON (Charles) On the Mean Density of the Earth, pp.276-292; HERSCHEL (J. F. W.) On the Separation of Iron from Other Metals, pp.293-299; EARLE (Henry) On the Re-Establishment of a Canal in the Place of a Portion of the Urethra Which Had Been Destroyed, pp.300-310; RUMKER (Charles) Calculations of some Observations of the Solar Eclipse.., pp.311-315; KATER (Henry) An Account of the re-Measurement of the Cube, Cylinder and Sphere used by… Shuckburgh Evelyn, p.316-326; BRINKLEY (John) An Account of Observations made with the eight feet astronomical circle.., p.327-360. With a total of 6 engraved plates (these a little browned and with an early library stamp on verso). (Book ref. 22270) £200.00
HUNT (Robert): On the Influence of Iodine in rendering several Argentine Compounds, spread on Paper, sensitive to Light, and on a new Method of producing, with greater distinctness, the Photographic Image,
First Edition, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol.130, pp.,325-334, disbound, large quarto, very good copy, London, [The Royal Society], 1840. First appearance of a pioneer-paper in the history of early photography. "Robert Hunt (1807-1887) was librarian and keeper of mining records at the Museum of Practical Geology and professor of mechanical engineering at the Royal School of Mines, London. He carried on numerous photographic and photochemical experiments and he was one of the founders of the London Photographic Society. These experiments with organic and inorganic light-sensitive substances, which, with characteristic unselfishness, he made public during the early forties of the lat century, were extremely useful in the study of photochemistry, which was the in its infancy, and were of great service for years to those who came after him and used his researches for the basis of their studies."(Eder "History of Photography", p.326) (Book ref. 22275) £250.00
HOME (Everard); GILBERT (Davies): HOME (Everard) On the Coagulation by Heat of the Fluid Blood in an Aneurismal Tumour, First Edition, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society,
vol.116, pp.189-201, disbound, large quarto, good copy, with 3 stipple engraved plates (these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name and early ink stamp on versos), London, [The Royal Society], 1826. SEWN WITH: GILBERT (Davies) On the Mathematical Theory of Suspension Bridges, with Tables for Facilitating Their Construction, ibid, pp.202-218. * Sir Everard Home (1756-1832). In 1773 he was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, but soon resigned his scholarship to become a pupil of the surgeon John Hunter. Home was appointed assistant surgeon under Hunter at St George's Hospital in 1787, and became a lecturer on anatomy in 1792. He was surgeon at St George's, 1793-1827, and at Chelsea Hospital from 1821. In 1813 he was made master of the Royal College of Physicians, and in 1821 he became its first president. (Book ref. 22263) £100.00
HODGKINSON (Eaton): Experimental Researches on the Strength of Pillars of Cast Iron, and other Materials.
First Edition, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 130, pp.385-456, disbound, large quarto, very good copy, 3 lithographic plates(these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name), London, [The Royal Society], 1840. * Hodgkinson's studies into cast iron marked a crucial breakthrough in the understanding of its strength and behaviour and thus its use as an effective structural material. The present paper, the first systematic investigation into the load-bearing capacities of cast-iron columns, is a milestone in the understanding of this treacherous material. Hodgkinson tested cylindrical, solid and hollow specimens with rounded and with flat ends and his results enabled him to give practical guidelines on their design for architects and engineers. The experiments were carried out under the auspices of William Fairbairn, many of them on a testing machine designed by him (and illustrated here). From his studies, Hodgkinson was able to produce a formula for the design of columns which, although modified and improved by Lewis Gordon and by Rankine, remained standard as long as columns were made in cast iron." (Elton). (Book ref. 22267) £150.00
HERSCHEL (John F. W.): On the chemical action of the rays of the solar spectrum on preparations of silver and other substances, both metallic and non-metallic, and on some photographic processes.
First Edition, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1840, vol.130, pp. 1-59, and 2 plates (lithograph of Herschel's telescope; stipple engraving of the heat spectrum of the sun), with general title-page to vol 140, (this with small and neat embossed unlinked library name which is also on the plates), large quarto, modern calf backed boards in period style, very good copy, London, [The Royal Society], 1840. * Herschel's classic paper contains the first use of the terms "positive" and "negative" in connection with photography, as well as a detailed account of the use of hyposulfite of soda as a fixative, his observation of the superior light-sensitivity of bromide of silver, a description of his first experiments with photography in solar spectroscopy, his process (anticipating Bayard) for obtaining direct positive proofs on paper, the necessity of using achromatic lenses for correct delineation, etc. Herschel's paper represents "a densely packed comprehensive summary" (Schaaf, p. 94) of the intensive researches in photography that had occupied him during 1839 and 1840, when he and his friend Henry Fox Talbot were striving to steal a march on Daguerre and the French by perfecting the process of making and fixing photographic images on paper that Talbot had begun developing some seven years before (see Schaaf, 'Out of the Shadows', chapters 3-5 for a detailed discussion of Herschel's photographic researches, including excerpts from his unpublished scientific notebooks and his lengthy correspondence with Talbot). This paper marks Herschel's first major contribution to photography; it was preceded only by his "Note on the art of photography or the application of the chemical rays of light to the purpose of pictorial representation" (1839), Gernsheim, History of Photography, pp. 96-98 ("abounds in important statements and observations which had a great bearing on the future of photography"); Gernsheim, Incunabula of British Photographic Literature, 1068. Boni, p. 127. * For this paper John Herschel was awarded the Copley archives winners Prize for 1840. "The object which the author has in view in this memoir is to place on record a number of insulated facts and observations respecting the relations both of white light, and of the differently refrangible rays, to various chemical agents which have offered themselves to his notice in the course of his photographical experiments, suggested by the announcement of M. Daguerre's discovery.....The terms "direct" and "reverse" are also used to express pictures in which objects appear, as regards right and left, the same as in the original, and the contrary....The principal objects of inquiry in the present paper...are the following. First, the means of fixing photographs, the comparative merits of different chemical agents...The means of taking photographic copies and transfers.....The preparation of photographic paper....The chemical analysis of the solar spectrum forms the subjects of the next section in the paper..."(Abstract). (Book ref. 22274) £900.00
GUEST (Richard); [ARKWRIGHT, Richard]: A Compendious History of the Cotton-Manufacture; with a Disproval of the Claim of Sir Richard Arkwright to the Invention of its Ingenious Machinery,
First Edition, 70, 3pp plus 12 fine plates (3 lithographs and 9 copper engravings of both old methods and the new machinery), large quarto, very attractive copy in original boards carefully rebacked with printed paper label, uncut, with the ownership signature of W. H. Guest [relative of author?], MANCHESTER, printed by Joseph Pratt and sold by E. Thomson [&c], 1823. * With chapters on: National and general Importance of the Cotton Manufacture; Early Modes of Spinning and Weaving; Improved Methods of Management and Disposal of Manufactured Cottons; Invention of the Spinning Jenny; Invention of the Water Frame, or Throstle; The Carding Engine; Some Account of the Life of Sir Richard Arkwright..; Change of Character and Manners in the Population, superinduced by the extension of the Cotton Manufacture; Moral and religious Character of Weavers; The Steam Loom, &c. Although Arkwright is credited with the invention of the cotton spinning machinery this was disputed and the DNB article on him devotes considerable space to the accusations - ably set forth in this book by Guest - that in constructing his cotton spinning machinery Arkwright copied and presented the ideas of several of his contemporaries without acknowledgement. Thomas Highs (1718-1803) is known for claiming patents on a spinning jenny, a carding machine, the throstle (a machine for the continuous twisting and winding of wool), and the water frame. In the present work, Richard Guest claims that Thomas Highs was the actual inventor of both Hargreaves' spinning jenny, and Arkwright's rollers, the feature of the water frame. It is alleged that Highs gave clockmaker Kay a wooden model of his rollers and asked him to make a working metal version. Kay did so before returning to live a few miles away in his native Warrington. Richard Arkwright met Kay on his business travels, gained his confidence, and over a drink in a public house persuaded him to hand over the secrets of Highs's machines. Arkwright, later Sir Richard Arkwright, massed a substantial fortune and reputation in the cotton industry from this invention, while Highs lived the rest of his life in obscurity before his death in 1803. *Guest was also profoundly interested in the social effects of these technical developments in the industry. The perceived threat of the power loom led to disquiet and industrial unrest and well-known protests movements such as the Luddites and the Chartists had hand loom weavers amongst their leaders. Here Richard Guest makes a comparison of the productivity of power and hand loom weavers: "It is a curious circumstance, that, when the Cotton Manufacture was in its infancy, all the operations, from the dressing of the raw material to its being finally turned out in the state of cloth, were completed under the roof of the weaver's cottage [this the subject of plate I]. The course of improved manufacture which followed, was to spin the yarn in factories and to weave it in cottages. At the present time, when the manufacture has attained a mature growth, all the operations, with vastly increased means and more complex contrivances, are again performed in a single building. The Weaver's cottage with its rude apparatus of peg warping, hand cards, hand wheels, and imperfect looms, was the Steam Loom factory in miniature. Those vast brick edifices in the vicinity of all the great manufacturing towns in the south of Lancashire, towering to the height of seventy or eighty feet, which strike the attention and excite the curiosity of the traveller, now perform labours which formerly employed whole villages. In the Steam Loom factories, the cotton is carded, roved, spun, and woven into cloth, and the same quantum of labour is now performed in one of these structures which formerly occupied the industry of an entire district. A very good Hand Weaver, a man twenty-five or thirty years of age, will weave two pieces of nine-eighths shirting per week, each twenty four yards long, and containing one hundred and five shoots of weft in an inch, the reed of the cloth being a forty-four, Bolton count, and the warp and weft forty hanks to the pound. A Steam Loom Weaver, fifteen years of age, will in the same time weave seven similar pieces. A Steam Loom factory containing two hundred Looms, with the assistance of one hundred persons under twenty years of age, and of twenty-five men will weave seven hundred pieces per week, of the length and quality before described. To manufacture one hundred similar pieces per week by the hand, it would be necessary to employ at least one hundred and twenty-five Looms, because many of the Weavers are females, and have cooking, washing, cleaning and various other duties to perform; others of them are children and, consequently, unable to weave as much as the men. It requires a man of mature age and a very good Weaver to weave two of the pieces in a week, and there is also an allowance to be made for sickness and other incidents. Thus, eight hundred and seventy-five hand Looms would be required to produce the seven hundred pieces per week; and reckoning the weavers, with their children, and the aged and infirm belonging to them at two and a half to each loom, it may very safely be said, that the work done in a Steam Factory containing two hundred Looms, would, if done by hand Weavers, find employment and support for a population of more than two thousand persons. The Steam Looms are chiefly employed in Weaving printing cloth and shirtings, but they also weave thicksetts, fancy cords, dimities, cambrics and quiltings, together with silks, worsteds, and fine woollen or broad cloth. Invention is progressive, every improvement that is made is the foundation of another, and as the attention of hundreds of skilful mechanics and manufacturers is now turned to the improvement of the Steam Loom, it is probable that its application will become as general, and its efficiency as great, in Weaving, as the Jenny, Water Frame and Mule, are in Spinning, and that it will, in this country at least, entirely supersede the hand Loom." p.44ff. (Book ref. 22260) £1500.00
BUCKLAND (William): Account of an assemblage of Fossil Teeth and Bones of Elephant, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Bear, Tiger, and Hyaena, and sixteen other animals; discovered in a cave at Kirkdale, Yorkshire, in the year 1821:
[title continues] with a comparative view of five similar caverns in various parts of England, and others on the Continent. First Edition, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 112, pp.171-236 with general title-page to the volume, disbound, large quarto, very good copy, complete with 12 fine engraved plates (these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name and early inked stamp on verso), London, [The Royal Society], 1822. * William Buckland (1784 - 1856), English geologist, palaeontologist. "He wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, which he named Megalosaurus. His work proving that Kirkdale Cave had been a prehistoric hyaena den, for which he was awarded the Copley Medal, was widely praised as an example of how detailed scientific analysis could be used to understand geohistory by reconstructing events from deep time. He was a pioneer in the use of fossilized feces, for which he coined the term coprolites, to reconstruct ancient ecosystems. Buckland was a proponent of the Gap Theory that interpreted the biblical account of Genesis as referring to two separate episodes of creation separated by a lengthy period; it emerged in the late 18th and early 19th centuries as a way to reconcile the scriptural account with discoveries in geology that suggested the earth was very old. Early in his career he believed that he had found geologic evidence of the biblical flood, but later became convinced that the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz provided a better explanation, and he played an important role in promoting that theory in Great Britain… From his investigations of fossil bones at Kirkdale Cave, in Yorkshire, he concluded that the cave had actually been inhabited by hyaenas in antediluvian times, and that the fossils were the remains of these hyaenas and the animals they had eaten, rather than being remains of animals that had perished in the Flood and then carried from the tropics by the surging waters, as he and others had at first thought. In 1822 he wrote: "It must already appear probable, from the facts above described, particularly from the comminuted state and apparently gnawed condition of the bones, that the cave in Kirkdale was, during a long succession of years, inhabited as a den of hyaenas, and that they dragged into its recesses the other animal bodies whose remains are found mixed indiscriminately with their own: this conjecture is rendered almost certain by the discovery I made, of many small balls of the solid calcareous excrement of an animal that had fed on bones... It was at first sight recognized by the keeper of the Menagerie at Exter Change, as resembling, in both form and appearance, the faeces of the spotted or cape hyaena, which he stated to be greedy of bones beyond all other beasts in his care." While criticized by some, Buckland's analysis of Kirkland Cave and other bone caves was widely seen as a model for how careful analysis could be used to reconstruct the Earth's past, and the Royal Society awarded Buckland the Copley Medal in 1822 for his paper on Kirkdale Cave. At the presentation the society's president, Humphry Davy, said: "by these inquiries, a distinct epoch has, as it were, been established in the history of the revolutions of our globe: a point fixed from which our researches may be pursued through the immensity of ages, and the records of animate nature, as it were, carried back to the time of the creation."" (Book ref. 22264) £400.00
BRODIE (B. C.): The Calculus of Chemical Operations; being a Method for the Investigation, by means of Symbols, of the Laws of the Distribution of Weight in Chemical Change.
BOTH PARTS COMPLETE: comprising: I. On the Construction of Chemical Symbols. II. On the Analysis of Chemical Events, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, respectively vol. 156, pp.781-859; with: vol.167, pp.35-116, First Editions, with general title-page to vol 156, disbound, large quarto, very good copies, London, [The Royal Society], 1866, 1877. * See: William H. Brock; Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie (1817-1880). "By 1850 Brodie had established himself as a leading experimental and theoretical chemist.. At the beginning of the 1860s Brodie turned his back on the structuralist tendency of organic chemists such as Williamson and Adolph Wurtz and professed a determined skepticism towards the truth and conventional utility of the atomic theory. His sustained opposition to Dalton's atomism during the last twenty years of his life proved the most remarkable philosophical and theoretical achievement of his career.. Brodie's position was that the ultimate nature of matter was unknowable; chemistry had to be based solely on observational phenomena. For Brodie, influenced by his reading of Lavoisier, Condillac, Gerhardt, and Comte, atoms were an unnecessary and confusing interpolations between observation and expression of phenomena because they were not subject to any rules and invited the unwary to think of chemical phenomena in terms of real balls. He denied that the object of science was to explain. He agreed with Gerhardt that "chemical formulae are not meant to represent the arrangements of atoms, but rather to make evident simply and exactly the relations that link bodies during transformations" (Philosophical Transactions, 156 [1866], 781-859; 167 [1877], 35-116). We cannot ask what water is, but only describe how it behaves and what it becomes during interaction with other chemical materials. Because we have no way of grasping the underlying reality of things, we must be content to describe accurately how matter behaves. Since Daltonian-Berzelian atomism had led chemists astray, atomism and its symbolism had to be swept away. The facts of chemistry were to be represented by suitable symbols that could be derived algebraically from Gay Lussac's law of volumes and Dulong and Petit's law of specific heats. Further algebraic manipulation of the symbols might then lead to new truths. "Such a system", he claimed, "is based, in the most absolute sense, upon fact, for it presents only two objects to our consideration, the symbol and the thing signified by the symbol, the object of thought and the object of sense". In 1866 the Royal Society began to publish Brodie's "The Calculus of Chemical Operations" [the papers here presented] which introduced Greek symbols for the chemical elements to replace the roman alphabet (Berzelian) symbols that contemporary chemists used to represent atomic weights. Brodie's symbols, however, represented operations on space (volumes), not weights for, besides its revolutionary symbolism, the calculus also demanded an appreciation of George Boole's algebraic logic, which Brodie had studied after the publication of Boole's Investigation of the Laws of Thought in 1854… Few contemporary chemists were able to follow Brodie's mathematical reasoning and what principally interested them was its implication that elements like chlorine might be compounds that contained hydrogen. The new spectroscope appeared, at first, to promise validation of Brodie's prediction. His "ideal chemistry", as he called it, stimulated a great deal of fruitful controversy in the 1860s and 1870s…" (Book ref. 22276) £250.00
BOWMAN (William): On the Minute Structure and Movements of Voluntary Muscle, WITH: Additional Note on the Contraction of Voluntary Muscle in the Living Body.
First Editions, extracted from The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, respectively vol.130 for 1840, pp., 457-501 and vol.131 for 1841, pp. 69-72, complete with a total of 5 lithographic plates, with general title-page to vol 130, (this and plates with small and neat embossed unlinked library name), disbound, large quarto, very good copy, London, [The Royal Society], 1840, 1841. * "Classical description of the striated muscle" (GARRISON MORTON, 542). "Bowman's classic description of the anatomy and contracility of striated muscle fibrils was hardly improved upon until the advent of the electron microscope. He was the first to give a complete description of the fascicular tunic, which he named sarcolemma." Haskell Norman Library. The first part of William Bowman's professional career (up to 1842) concentrated on histological studies which resulted in the publication of 'Physiological anatomy and physiology of man' (1843-1856) published with Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860). This work was an important landmark and displayed Bowman's accurate eye and descriptive pen, and artistic pencil which produced masterly accounts of histology. New and detailed descriptions were made of skin, muscle, nerves, sense organs, kidney, bone, and cartilage. On 18 June 1840 the paper "On the minute structure and movement of voluntary muscle" was communicated to the Royal Society by Todd. It resulted in Bowman's election to fellowship at the age of twenty-five. Striated muscle fine structure began to be really understood following a comprehensive survey of the matter carried out by William Bowman in the late 1830s. The publications resulting from such a study, the first of which earned for the author a precocious election as Fellow of the Royal Society. DSB, II, pp. 375-376; Fulton, History of physiology, pp. 226-228; Garrison and Morton 542; Haskell Norman Library 294. (Book ref. 22272) £400.00
BELL (Charles); HOME (Everard); PHILLIPS (Richard); FARADAY (Michael); DAVY (Humphry): BELL (Charles) On the Nerves; Giving an Account of Some Experiments on Their Structure and Functions, Which Lead to a New Arrangement of the System,
First Edition, disbound extract from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society from vol 111 for 1821, pp. pp.398-424, large quarto, with one engraved plate (this a little browned and with an early library stamp on verso), London, [Royal Society], 1821. * GARRISON-MORTON, # 1255: "Bell's nerve, the long thoracic, described" and # 4520: "Bell's palsy; the facial paralysis ensuing upon lesion of the motor nerve of the face is here for the first time described". "Bell was one of the first physicians to combine the scientific study of neuroanatomy with clinical practice. In 1821, he described in the trajectory of the facial nerve and a disease, Bell's Palsy which led to the unilateral paralysis of facial muscles, in ONE OF THE CLASSICS OF NEUROLOGY, a paper to the Royal Society [the present paper] entitled "On the Nerves: Giving an Account of some Experiments on Their Structure an Functions," - Wikipedia. * Presented sewn with the following papers (with a total of 5 plates); BARLOW (Peter) On the Effects Produced in the Rates of Chronometers by the Proximity of Masses of Iron, pp.361-389; HOME (Everard) On the Peculiarities That Distinguish the Manatee of the West Indies from the Dugong of the East Indian Seas, pp.390-391; PHILLIPS (Richard); FARADAY (Michael) On a New Compound of Chlorine and Carbon, pp.392-397; DAVY (Humphry) Farther Researches on the Magnetic Phaenomena Produced by Electricity; With Some New Experiments on the Properties of Electrified Bodies in Their Relations to Conducting Powers and Temperature, pp.425-439. (Book ref. 22271) £350.00
BELL (Charles): Three papers on the Nervous System extracted from the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: comprising: 1). On the Functions of Some Parts of the Brain, and on the Relations between the Brain and Nerves of Motion and Sensation;
[continues]: 2). Continuation of the Paper on the Relations between the Nerves of Motion and of Sensation, and the Brain; More Particularly on the Structure of the Medulla oblongata and the Spinal Marrow; 3). On the Nervous System: respectively from volume 124, for 1834, pp.471-483; from volume125, for 1835, pp.255-262; from volume 130, for 1840, pp.245-254, with a total of 4 engraved plates, (these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name), all first editions, large quarto, disbound, a very good copies, London, [The Royal Society], 1834, 1835, 1840. * Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) Scottish surgeon, anatomist, neurologist. He also served as a military surgeon, making elaborate recordings of neurological injuries at the Royal Hospital Haslar and famously documenting his experiences at Waterloo in 1815. Bell published his detailed studies of the nervous system in 1811, in his privately circulated book An Idea of a New Anatomy of the Brain and in several subsequent papers in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. He described his experiments with animals and later emphasised how he was the first to distinguish between sensory and motor nerves. These are considered by many to be the founding stone of clinical neurology. Bell was one of the first physicians to combine the scientific study of neuroanatomy with clinical practice. In 1821, he described in the trajectory of the facial nerve and a disease, Bell's Palsy which led to the unilateral paralysis of facial muscles. (Book ref. 22266) £300.00
BAYNES (John [Alderman]): The Cotton Trade. Two Lectures on the above Subject Delivered before the Members of the Blackburn Literary, Scientific and Mechanics' Institution, by Mr. Alderman Baynes..,
[title continues] First - The Origin, Rise, Progress and Present extent of the Cotton Trade; Second - Its Mission; Politically, Socially, Morally and Religiously.., First Edition, viii, 111pp octavo, later cloth backed boards, library bookplate, uninked library embossed name on title and last leaf, very good copy, BLACKBURN, Haworth, 1857. Overview of the cotton factories by a miller owner sympathetic to his workers. Cited as a statistical source by Marx in Das Capital; includes chapters on: The Origin of the Cotton Trade; Rise and Progress of the Factory System - the Invention of Modern Spinning Machinery; Development of Trade and Commerce; Creation of Large Towns; the Power Loom Weavers Aspect; Social Results of the Cotton Trade &c. * "John Baynes (1814-1873) learned the cotton business with his uncle and was later appointed manager of Park Place Mills, in Blackburn. Here, on the dissolution of partnership between Mr. Eccles and his brother, Mr. Baynes was taken into the firm as a junior partner. Along with James and William Pilkington and Edward Eccles, he subsequently rented the old mill from the trustees of Banister Eccles. About 1848 new mills were erected at Park Place and he ended his connection with the undertaking, accepting the Knuzden Brook estate and mill (owned by the firm) as a retiring partner. He likewise commenced the erection of the Cicely Bridge Mills, Audley, and there for a time carried on a very successful business. He held a seat on the Board of Commissioners before Blackburn was incorporated, was elected as representative of Park Ward in 1851 and later became an alderman, his long service earning him the title of Father of the Corporation. During the cotton famine he was on the Central Relief Committee and contributed over £1,000 to the local fund. At the same time he ran his mills at a loss in order to keep the workpeople employed, a generous act which greatly depleted his resources and ultimately obliged him to compound with his creditors." -George C. Miller. (Book ref. 22261) £350.00
YOUNG (Thomas): The Bakerian Lecture: On the Mechanism of the Eye,
pp.23-88 within the complete volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol 91, Parts I, II, (complete), bound in one volume for 1801, * Garrison-Morton 1487: "Includes the first description of astigmatism, with measurements and optical constants." In his decade of research on vision, light and colour, Young solved the major problems still left in eighteenth century theory, and introduced new problems for the nineteenth, earning for himself the epithet, "father of physiological optics." The present paper has been called "the most important treatise on physiological optics published up to that time" (Hirschberg/Blodi V, 22). Young described his improvement on the optometer, analyzed the optics of the eye, made optometric measurements of its dimensions, and computed the changes in focal length for near and far vision. He made the first exact measurements of the visual field, and the first series of measurements on refraction and accommodative power. To show that changes of shape take place in the lens, he made use of his own astigmatism, giving the first clinical description of astigmatism. * Presented within the complete volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol 138, Parts I, II, (complete), bound in one volume for 1801, comprising, vi, 456pp, quarto, with 33 engraved plates, some extending, late 20thC library cloth with a neat unlinked library name stamp on general title, foot of last leaves and occasionally elsewhere, title, preliminaries and a few other leaves silked - as are some edges of extending plates, and also one of the plates in the Young paper, London, Bulmer, [Royal Society],1801. * A FULL LIST OF CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME SENT ON REQUEST. Other papers include: HERSCHEL (William) Observations Tending to Investigate the Nature of the Sun, in Order to Find the Causes or Symptoms of Its Variable Emission of Light and Heat; With Remarks on the Use That May Possibly Be Drawn from Solar Observations, pp.265-318; WITH: Additional Observations Tending to Investigate the Symptoms of the Variable Emission of the Light and Heat of the Sun; With Trials to Set Aside Darkening Glasses, by Transmitting the Solar Rays through Liquids; And a Few Remarks to Remove Objections That Might Be Made against Some of the Arguments Contained in the Former Paper, pp.354-362; DAVY (Humphry) An Account of Some Galvanic Combinations, Formed by the Arrangement of Single Metallic Plates and Fluids, Analogous to the New Galvanic Apparatus of Mr. Volta, pp.397-402; HULME (Nathaniel) A Continuation of the Experiments and Observations on the Light Which is Spontaneously Emitted from Various Bodies; With Some Experiments and Observations on Solar Light, When Imbibed by Canton's Phosphorus, pp.403-426; COOPER (Astley) Farther Observations on the Effects Which Take Place from the Destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; With an Account of an Operation for the Removal of a Particular Species of Deafness, pp.435-450. (Book ref. 22259) £500.00
WHEATSTONE (Charles): Contributions to the Physiology of Vision.- Part the First [and: Part the Second, complete]. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, Phenomena of Binocular Vision.
[title continues] Contributions to the Physiology of Vision.- Part the First [and: Part the Second, complete]. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, Phenomena of Binocular Vision. 1838. [WITH:] The Bakerian Lecture. - Contributions to the Physiology of Vision. Part the Second (continued). First Edition, disbound extracts from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol 128 for 1838, pp.371-394, and vol 142 for 1852, pp.1-17, large quarto, complete with 3 lithographic plates (these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name), an excellent copy, London, [Royal Society], 1838, 1852 * THE INENTION OF THE STEREOSCOPE. "Stereopsis was first described by Wheatstone in 1838.[6] In 1840 he was awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society for his explanation of binocular vision, a research which led him to make stereoscopic drawings and construct the stereoscope. He showed that our impression of solidity is gained by the combination in the mind of two separate pictures of an object taken by both of our eyes from different points of view. Thus, in the stereoscope, an arrangement of lenses or mirrors, two photographs of the same object taken from different points are so combined as to make the object stand out with a solid aspect. Sir David Brewster improved the stereoscope by dispensing with the mirrors, and bringing it into its existing form with lenses." - Wikipedia. * "As the inventor of the stereoscope, later developed by Brewster, Wheatstone found himself - to his own surprise - the first since Leonardo da Vinci to discuss depth perception in terms of the different image received by the eye."(DSB XIV, p. 290). GARRISON MORTON # 1498. (Book ref. 22255) £600.00
SMITH (Edward): Experimental Inquiries Into the Chemical and Other Phenomena of Respiration, and Their Modifications By Various Physical Agencies,
WITH: Experiments on Respiration - Second Communication. On the Action of Foods Upon the Respiration During the Primary Process of Digestion. First Editions, disbound extracts from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, respectively from vol 149 for 1859, pp.681-714 and ibid, pp.715-742, large quarto, with four lithographic plates (these with small and neat embossed unlinked library name), an excellent copy, London, [Royal Society], 1859 - 1859. * GARRISON-MORTON 935.1; "Smith invented a respirometer to study changes in respiratory function under various conditions." See also DSB Vol. 12, p. 467, where this is noted as his most important work (Book ref. 22252) £200.00
ROBINSON (T. R.) and GRUBB (Thomas); CAYLEY (Professor); WHYMPER (Edward);: ROBINSON (T. R.) and GRUBB (Thomas) Description of the Great Melbourne Telescope,
pp.127-161 + 10 lithographic plates within the complete volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol 159, bound in one volume for 1869. * First printing of this detailed description of the Great Melbourne Telescope, by Robinson, member of the committee and Thomas Grubb, the constructor. With it a number of important observations of Nebulae were carried out. For 20 years it was the largest in the world, and it was the first instrument to document gravitational lens light refraction. The telescope was destroyed during the bush fires of January 2003."The construction of the grand instrument was entrusted to Mr. Grubb, F.R.S., of Dublin, Ireland. At the Commencement of the year 1868 the telescope was completed, and examined by the Committee of the Royal Society, made up of Lord Rosse, Dr. Robinson and Warren de la Rue. In their report they expressed their opinion that the equatorial was a masterpiece of astronomical mechanism." * Presented within the complete volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol 159, bound in one volume for 1869, comprising, v, 3, 812, 28pp, large thick quarto, with 87 engraved / lithographic plates, some colour printed, late 20thC library cloth with a neat unlinked library name stamp on general title, foot of last leaves and occasionally elsewhere, a good copy, title with old repairs to margins, London, Taylor, [Royal Society],1870. * A FULL LIST OF CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME SENT ON REQUEST. Other papers include: CAYLEY (Professor) A Third Memoir on Skew Surfaces, Otherwise Scrolls, pp.111-126; AND: A Memoir on the Theory of Reciprocal Surfaces, pp.201-229; AND: A Memoir on Cubic Surfaces, pp.231-326; WHYMPER (Edward) and Oswald HEER; Contributions to the Fossil Flora of North Greenland, being a Description of the Plants Collected by Mr. Edward Whymper during the Summer of 1867, pp. 445-488. (Book ref. 22258) £300.00