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JEVONS (William Stanley): Pure Logic and Other Minor Works.., edited by Robert Adamson and Harriet A. Jevons, with a Preface by Professor Adamson,
First Edition, xxiii, 299pp., complete with 4 plates, tall 8vo, a fine copy in original orange/red cloth, London, Macmillan, 1890.* One of Jevons's rarest works despite being late in the canon. It includes four chapters on the Theory of Logic one of which is Jevons's 1870 article on his "logical piano - a logic machine - a sort of motional form of the later diagrammatic scheme of John Venn. Jevons' 'logical piano' .. was built for him by a Salford clockmaker. It resembled a small upright piano, with twenty-one keys for classes and operations in an equational logic. Four terms, A, B, C, and D, with their negations, in binary combinations, were displayed in slots in front and in back of the piano; and the mechanism allowed for classification, retention, or rejection, depending upon what the player fed in via the keyboard. The keyboard was arranged in an equational form, with all eight terms on both left and right and a 'copula' key between them. The remaining four keys were, on the extreme left, 'finis' (clearance) and the inclusive 'or', and, on the extreme right, 'full stop' (output) and the inclusive 'or again.' In all 216 (65,536) logical selections were possible. "The machine earned much acclaim. .. Although its principal value was as an aid to the teaching of the new logic of classes and propositions, it actually solved problems with superhuman speed and accuracy, and some of its features can be traced in modern computer designs" (DSB. 7: 105). Five further essays are grouped under the general title of "John Stuart Mill's Philosophy Tested." Of the latter, the editors note that Jevons "attached much weight to his critical examination of J.S. Mill's doctrines, and the labour bestowed on it played a large part in the last ten or twelve years of his life." Includes the 1864 book 'Pure Logic, or the Logic of Quality Apart from Quantity: with Remarks on Boole's System and on the Relation of Logic and Mathematics', which is one of Jevons's rarest publications and one to which he himself attached high importance. The principle of sameness forms the basis of this, his first book on logic which he described in the following terms: "The original principle of this theory is that sameness is the one great relation which the mind deals in when constructing science". Of the need for simplification in logic Jevons was convinced: he found the subject in as confused a state as political economy before he set out to "re-establish the science on a sensible basis". He therefore aimed to simplify logical theory as far as possible, and his important modifications on Boole's system (which are still accepted today) were to this end. He showed, for example, that the Boolean operations for subtraction and division were superfluous: he redefined the symbol + to mean 'either one, or the other, or both'. Jevons went on to champion the principles of Boole's system against that of Mill, writing three articles against Mill's system. (Book ref. 20520)   £620.00
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CAJORI (Florian): A History of Mathematical Notations. Two Volumes.
vol I First Edition, vol II third printing, 2 vols, xvi, 451; xvii, 367pp, large octavo, A VERY FINE SET IN ORIGINAL CLOTH WITH DUST WRAPPERS. PHOTOGRAPH AVAILABLE ON REQUEST. Chicago, The Open Court Publishing Company, 1928 / 52. The great standard work on the subject beautifully printed (unlike the later facsimiles). Comprises: Volume I, Notations in Elementary Mathematics: preface, list of 1-106 b&w illustrations, I. Introduction, II. Numeral Symbols and Combinations of Symbols, III. Symbols in Arithmetic and Algebra (Elementary Part), IV. Symbols in Geometry (Elementary Part), Volume II, Notations Mainly in Higher Mathematics: list of 107-126 b&w illustrations, introduction, I. Topical Survey of Symbols in Arithmetic and Algebra, II. Symbols in Modern Algebra, III. Symbols in Geometry (AdvancedPart), IV. The Teachings of History, alphabetical index. (Book ref. 20480)   £120.00
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BOOLE (George): An Investigation of the Laws of Thought: on which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities,
First Edition, probable third issue, iv, errata leaf, 424pp, tall royal octavo, original publisher's green pebble grained cloth, blind ruled on boards, gilt lettered, spine extremities neatly restored and with new endpapers, a very good copy, London, Macmillan, 1854. PHOTOGRAPHS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST. "Boole invented the first practical system of logic in algebraic form, which enabled more advances in logic to be made in the decades of the nineteenth century than in the twenty-two centuries preceding. Boole's work led to the creation of set theory and probability theory in mathematics, to the philosophical work of Peirce, Russell, Whitehead and Wittgenstein, and to computer technology via the master's thesis of C. E. Shannon (1937), who recognized that the true/false values in Boole's two-valued algebra were analgous to the open and closed states of electric circuits. Since Boole showed that logics can be reduced to very simple algebraic systems - known today as Boolean Algebras - it was possible for Babbage and his sucessors to design organs for a computer that could perform the necessary logical tasks. Thus our debt to this simple, quiet man, george Boole, is extraordinarily great." "This invention of the binary digit or "bit" made possible the development of the digital computer" (Norman). Today nearly everyone who uses a computer is familiar with Boolean Logic but the book that launched the theory is scarce. Norman 266; Origins of Cyberspace 224. (Book ref. 20484)   £2500.00
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NAPIER (John); KNOTT (Cargill Gilston, editor): Napier Tercentenary Memorial Volume.
comprising addresses and essays delivered before the "International Congress which met in Edinburgh towards the end of July, 1914, to commemorate the Tercentenary of the publication of John Napier's 'Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio'." First Edition, xi, 442pp., quarto, colour portrait frontispiece and 15 plates, including several which reproduce Napier's original manuscripts; text illustrations. A very fine copy, uncut and unopened in original cream-colored cloth with front cover with Napier's coat of arms stamped in gilt, top edge gilt. London: Longmans, Green, for the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1915. *Essential text on Napier, with historical and bibliographical articles by authorities including Cajori, D. Eugene Smith, and two by d'Ocagne. Includes a detailed bibliography of the books exhibited at the Tercentenary including some that were from Babbage's library. Hook and Norman; Origins of Cyberspace, 331: "An elegantly printed collection of addresses and essays at the Napier tercentennial celebration… The essays concerned either Napier's life and work or developments in calculating since Napier. The essays include two by Ocagne "Numerical tables and nomograms" and "On the origin of machines of direct multiplication" - as well as J. R. Milne's "Arrangement of mathematical Tables… J. W. L. Glaisher contributed a chapter on "Logarithms and Computation" covering the history and then-current use of logarithms." Randall 1982a, 482 (Book ref. 20424)   £285.00
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BARKER (Wayne G.): Cryptanalysis of the Single Columnar Transposition Cipher,
First Edition, 140pp, a very good copy in original cloth,with dust-wrapper, Rutland, Tuttle, 1961. (Book ref. 19950)   £26.00
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KLIR (George J.): Trends in General Systems Theory,
First Edition, 462pp large octavo, a few library marks but a very good copy in original cloth, with dust-wrapper, Wiley-Interscience, NY, 1972. Contents: I: History and basic aspects and role of computers; II: Discusses some important contemporary system problems - mainly in social sciences; III: Describes the Mesarovic and Wymore theories, as well as the authors; IV: Studies of some aspects of formal systems theories. (Book ref. 19753)   £12.00
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CHAUNDY (T. W.) and others;: The Printing of Mathematics,
Aid for Authors and Editors and Rules for Readers and Compositors and Readers at University Press, Oxford, second edition, third impression, 109pp slim tall 8vo, a very good copy in original cloth, with dust-wrapper, library stamp on front endpaper and verso title, London, Oxford University Press, 1965. (Book ref. 19221)   £22.00
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BABBAGE: [JACQUARD, Joseph Marie]; POSSELT (Emanuel Anthony): New and Revised Edition of The Jacquard Machine Analyzed and Explained: the Preparation of Jacquard Cards,
and Practical Hints to Learners of Jacquard Designing, fourth edition, 120pp plus 22pp advertisements at end, portrait (of Jacquard) and numerous large wood-engraved illustrations, a fine copy in original gilt lettered cloth, forming vol 4 in the series Posselt's Textile Library, Philadelphia:, Posselt, undated but c.1900. Photograph available on request. Babbage got the idea of the computer programme from Joseph Jacquard's looms. These avoided the use of skilled weavers by using a string of cards punched with holes that were attached to a rotating block over the looms. Where there were holes, threads could be picked up by hooks to be woven automatically into the patterns. The insight was marvellous - "the Engine eating its own tail" were Babbage's words for his application of the idea. With this start, and with the further ideas that he had, Babbage had established the basic principles on which today's computers work. See; Origins of Cyberspace, 355 for the first edition of 1888 (which made $6,000 at Christie's NY, 23rd February, 2005, lot 134): "This extensively illustrated work is the most detailed published account of the design and operation of the Jacquard loom, on which Jacquard himself appears to have never published any details. It includes an excellent description of the punched cards. The book includes a brief history of the Jacquard loom, a detailed description of its mechanism and an appendix on the preparation and stamping of Jacquard cards, illustrated with pictures of the stamping machines. The punched card method of storing and processing data evolved from methods developed by textile manufacturers in the 18th and 19th centuries for weaving complex patterns in cloth." "Born into a Lyonnese family of weavers, Jacquard was inspired by Vaucanson's punched-card loom to invent the Jacquard attachment, which caused any loom that used it to be called a Jacquard loom. The attachment was an automatic device that for the first time allowed a single operator to control from the loom all the movements involved in the production of complex woven patterns. The Jacquard loom reduced the amount of redundant manual labor that had previously been required in weaving, lowering labor and manufacturing costs and reducing physical hardship for the textile workers. It served as the catalyst for the technological revolution of the textile industry in the nineteenth century.Jacquard developed the idea for his invention in 1790, but because of the French Revolution did not exhibit it until 1801. Jacquard was granted a patent for his invention in 1803; in 1806 his loom was declared public property, and Jacquard was awarded a pension and royalties on each machine sold. Under the terms of Jacquard's pension he was required to introduce his technology to the textile industry of Lyons. During his first efforts, workers rioted out of fear of losing their jobs to the new technology, and at one point Jacquard had to flee for his life. However, he persevered and by the year 1812 there were eleven thousand Jacquard looms operating in France. By the time of Jacquard's death in 1834, twenty thousand Jacquard looms were installed in the Lyons region alone. Jacquard's invention made use of a punched-card system for storing and generating patterns. In the production of designs different cards were tied together by ribbons and hundreds of cards could be used in elaborate designs. Charles Babbage later incorporated punched-card technology as a method of data and program input in the design of his Analytical Engine. Even though the Analytical Engine was never constructed, Babbage's application of Jacquard punched card technology connected the Jacquard loom in the history of computing. The technology of punched cards was applied in data processing many years later, for use in the United States Census of 1890, when Herman Hollerith developed electrical machines for tabulating data stored on punched cards. Hollerith's company eventually evolved into IBM. Punched-card tabulation remained a primary means of data processing until it was phased out around 1960." (Origins of Cyberspace, 328). (Book ref. 19196)   £700.00
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BABBAGE [SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION];: Charles Babbage,
[original article] compiled for the Smithsonian Institution, in: Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution.. for the year 1873, First Edition, pp.162-197 in the complete volume, 452pp large octavo, a very good copy in original purple cloth, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1874. This original essay is essentially an extended obituary. Of great interest because it demonstrates great American enthusiasm for Babbage and obvious appreciation of his work - at a time when, in Britain, he had been largely ignored by the scientific establishment. Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19198)   £70.00
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BABBAGE (Charles) with: HERSCHEL (J. F. W.): Barometrical Observations made at the Fall of the Staubbach,
First Edition, in: The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.., conducted by Dr Brewster and Professor Jameson, p.224-227, in the complete volume, 412pp tall octavo, some spotting but a very good copy in contemporary half calf, rebacked retaining original red leather label, a few neat early library stamps, Edinburgh, Constable, 1822. Van Sinderen 16. Origins of Cyberspace, 28. Barometrical observations taken at a waterfall in Germany. Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19178)   £150.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): On Some New Methods of Investigating the Sums of Several Classes of Infinite Series,
First Edition, extracted from Transactions of the Royal Society, 34pp quarto, bound in boards with paper label on the front, an excellent copy, with very wide margins, [London, Bulmer], 1819. See Van Sinderen 11. Origins of Cybernetics, 24. First Journal Edition, preceded only by the rare offprint, of which probably only 50 copies were printed. "Babbage brings his great powers of inventiveness to this subject [i.e., infinite series] but like many of his contemporaries, appeared insensitive to problems arising out of convergence, and accepted unquestioningly several absurd results" (Dubbey 1978, 135-36). Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19175)   £220.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): On Machinery for Calculating and Printing Mechanical Tables,
First Edition, pp.274-281, in: The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Vol. 7, complete volume, (iv, iv, 415pp) tall octavo, a very good copy in old style quarter leather with marbled boards, a few early library stamps but a very good copy, Edinburgh, Archibald Constable, 1822. Photograph available on request. Van Sinderen no. 18 (n). Origins of Cyberspace, 30. This paper is an abstract of Babbage's Letter to Sir Humphrey Davy of the same year proposing construction of his Difference Engine No. 1. "In the early 1820s Babbage, frustrated by "the intolerable labour and fatiguing monotony of a continued repetition of similar arithmetical calculations", came up with the plan of designing a machine capable of performing various mathematical functions. By 1822 Babbage had constructed a model of his Difference Engine Number One, a special-purpose calculating machine far more complex than any that had previously been conceived, designed to compute mathematical tables by the method of finite differences and to print the results. In the design of his machine Babbage was influenced by the division of labor employed in the celebrated manuscript tables of de Prony which Babbage had seen in 1819. The division of labor, both physical and mental, became central themes of Babbage's economic thought later developed in his Economy of Machinery and Manufactures.Babbage was convinced of the "great utility" of his machine, but knew that constructing a larger version would entail "very considerable expense," and would also leave him no time to pursue his studies in pure mathematics. On July 3, 1822, as a means of testing the waters, Babbage wrote an open letter to Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, in which he presented a detailed description of his Difference Engine. This was his first public statement of his plans for his calculating engine, and his first publication on his project for developing calculating engines, on which he would devote most of his creative energy for the remainder of his life. A copy of this letter published as a pamphlet reached the Lords of the Treasury, who referred it back to the Royal Society on April 1, 1823, with a letter requesting the Society's opinion of Babbage's machine. One month later, on May 1, the Royal Society responded to the Treasury as follows: "That it appears to the Committee, that Mr. Babbage has displayed great talents and ingenuity in the construction of his machine for computation, which the Committee think fully adequate to the attainment of the objects proposed by the Inventor, and that they consider Mr. Babbage as highly deserving of public encouragement in the prosecution of his arduous undertaking" (Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Sessional Papers [1823], p. 6).This favourable report gained Babbage his first national funding of £1000 toward his construction of the Difference Engine. The project tested the limits of precision obtainable by machine tool makers at the time; it also ended up being far more costly than expected, claiming £17,000 of the government's money over the next decade before foundering in 1833, largely due to contractual disputes between Babbage and Joseph Clement, the engineer hired to construct Babbage's machine. By this time Babbage had begun to turn his attention to the Analytical Engine, a far more complex and powerful calculating machine whose design would occupy Babbage for most of the rest of his scientific career."- Origins of Cyberspace p.29. (Book ref. 19179)   £380.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): On Electrical and Magnetic Rotations,
First Edition, extracted from The Proceedings of the Royal Society, volume 116, pp.394-428, quarto, with the 1 large engraved plate, modern boards with label on front, small paper repair on final leaf but an excellent copy, London, The Royal Society, 1826. Photograph available on request. Van Sinderen 28. Not in Origins of Cyberspace. First Journal Edition, preceded only by the rare offprint, of which probably only 50 copies were printed. Here Babbage continued alone research he had begun with John Herschel on Arago's rotating discs. The experiments initiated by Arago, and carried on in England by Herschel and Babbage, led finally in 1831 to the discovery of electromagnetic induction by their friend Faraday, and thence to the generation of our electrical power. In the course of this investigation Babbage and Herschel came very close to discovering electromagnetic induction, seven years before Faraday. Hyman 58. (Book ref. 19182)   £350.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): On A Method of Expressing by Signs the Action of Machinery,
First Edition, extracted from The Proceedings of the Royal Society, volume 116, pp.250-65, quarto, modern paper boards with label on front cover, with the 4 large engraved plates illustrating mechanical notation, an excellent copy, London, The Royal Society, 1826. Photograph available on request. Van Sinderen 27. Origins of Cyberspace 37. First journal edition, preceded only by the rare offprint, of which probably only 50 copies were printed. This was Babbage's first formulation and explanation of his mechanical notation system, which was fundamental to all design work on his Difference Engine and Analytical Engine. "While making designs for the Difference Engine, Babbage found great difficulty in ascertaining from ordinary drawings - plans and elevations - the state of rest or motion of individual parts as computation proceeded: that is to say in following in detail succeeding stages of a machine's action. This led him to develop a mechanical notation which provided a systematic method for labelling parts of a machine, classifying each part as fixed or moveable; a formal method for indicating the relative motions of the several parts which was easy to follow; and means for relating notations and drawings so that they might illustrate and explain each other. As the calculating engines developed, the notation became a powerful but complex formal tool . . . the most powerful formal method for describing switching systems until Boolean algebra was applied to the problem in the middle of the twentieth century" (Hyman 58).Thus this crucial paper publishes, for the first time, Babbage's system of mechanical notation which enabled him to describe the logic and operation of his machines on paper as they would be fabricated in metal. Babbage later stated that "Without the aid of this language I could not have invented the Analytical Engine; nor do I believe that any machinery of equal complexity can ever be contrived without the assistance of that or of some other equivalent language. The Difference Engine No. 2 ... is entirely described by its aid" (Babbage 1864, 104).Thus here Babbage demonstrated for the first time his new mechanical notation system, a system which would be essential for all the design work for his famous Difference Engine, the first machine to mechanically perform mathematical calculations, and his later Analytical Engine. Babbage's system, when combined with the discoveries in logic by Boole (1847 and 1854) and the application to modern circuitry by Claude Shannon (1938), became an essential developmental step in the conception of the modern computer.Babbage considered his mechanical notation system to be one of his finest inventions, and thought it should be widely implemented. It was a source of frustration to him that no other machine designer adopted it (probably because no other engineer during Babbage's time attempted to build machines as logically and mechanically complex as Babbage's). More than one hundred years later, in the 1930s, when developments in logic were applied to switching systems Claude Shannon demonstrated in his famous master's thesis that Boolean algebra could be applied to the same types of problems for which Babbage had designed his mechanical notation system.With its four plates, this paper was also one of the most extensively illustrated that Babbage published. (Book ref. 19181)   £850.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): Observations on the Analogy which Subsists between the Calculus of Functions and other Branches of Analysis,
First Edition, extracted from Transactions of the Royal Society, 20pp quarto, bound in modern boards with label on front, an excellent copy, with very wide margins, [London, Bulmer], 1817. Van Sinderen 7. Origins of Cybernetics, 21. The first paper read by Babbage to The Royal Society after his selection as a member. The paper is highly innovative and brought from Cauchy, the French mathematician, the remark that it proved that "in the land of Newton there were still generations of geometricians who worked for the progress of analysis" - the note of surprise is not hidden in this somewhat back-handed compliment. First journal edition, preceded only by the rare offprint, of which probably only 50 copies were printed. "It can be said with some assurance that no mathematician prior to Babbage had treated the calculus of functions in such a systematic way... Babbage must be given full credit as the inventor of a distinct and important branch of mathematics" (Dubbey 1978, 90). Elsewhere Dubbey states that "Babbage believed that his new scheme would serve as a generalized calculus to include all problems capable of analytical formulation, and it is possible to see here a hint of the inspiration for his concept of the Analytical Engine. While the work on the engines and his other scientific, social and political activities caused him virtually to abandon mathematical research at the age of thirty, the calculus of functions was the area he often yearned to continue. In fact the calculus of functions was not taken up by other workers, and it is the aspect of Babbage's mathematical work that modern mathematicians find the most fascinating" (Dubbey 1989, 18-19). Many years later, in his Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, Babbage referred to the calculus of functions as his "earliest step" and "one to which I would willingly recur if other demands on my time permitted" (Babbage 1864, p.435). Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19172)   £420.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): An Examination of some Questions connected with Games of Chance,
First Edition, extracted from Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 25pp quarto, modern boards with paper label on front, an excellent copy, partially unopened and with very wide margins, Read March 21, 1820, [Edinburgh, Royal Society Edinburgh], 1821. Van Sinderen 14. Not in Origins of Cybernetics. Babbage's only paper on probability. Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19177)   £300.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): On the Application of Analysis to the Discovery of Logical Theorems and Porisms,
First Edition, extracted from Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 16pp quarto with full-page engraved plate, read May 1st, 1820, modern boards, an excellent copy, partially unopened and with very wide margins, [Edinburgh, Royal Society Edinburgh], 1823. Van Sinderen 21. Not in Origins of Cyberspace. One of Babbage's few papers on geometry. Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19180)   £345.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): Demonstration of a Theorem relating to Prime Numbers,
First Edition, in: The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.., conducted by Dr Brewster and Professor Jameson, p.46-49, in the complete volume, 436pp plus 9 engraved plates, some spotting but a very good copy in contemporary half calf, rebacked retaining original red leather label, a few neat early library stamps, Edinburgh, Constable, 1819. Van Sinderen, 12. Origins of Cyberspace, 25: "Babbage's only published work on number theory, concerned with an extension of Wilson's theorem (first published in 1776) that the number (n-1)! + 1 is divisible by n if n is a prime number, otherwise it is not divisible by n. "Babbage's aim was to provide a function of the integer n which had similar property with respect to n2... The proof is not complete for Babbage says nothing about the "otherwise it is not" part of the theorem." (Dubbey, 1978, 139-40)." Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19176)   £120.00
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BABBAGE (Charles): "[An Introductory View of the Principles of Manufactures]; On the General Principles which Regulate the Application of Machinery to Manufactures and the Mechanical Arts"
in: A Treatise on the Manufactures and Machinery of Great Britain by Peter Barlow to which is prefixed an Introductory View of the Principles of Manufactures by Charles Babbage, being Volume VIII of Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, edited by Edward Smedley and others, [1], viii, 834pp royal thick quarto, old circular armorial uninked embossed library paper-stamp on title occasionally repeated in text, (two leaves of later text - not Babbage's - with corners repaired but without loss), modern cloth, London, Fellowes, 1845 [Baldwin &c., 1836]. Babbage's Introductory View occupies p.1-84 with an additional separate title dated 1836 [probably the sheets are remaindered from that date and reissued here in 1845]. This is an important yet neglected original Babbage text. It was first published in an earlier form in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana as it originally appeared in 1829, but was considerably rewritten as different editions of this appeared (which they did between the 1820s-1840s). This was the text that formed the basis of Babbage's single most important work, the Economy of Manufactures, yet no scholarly research has yet been done in comparing the texts in a systematic way, to demonstrate how Babbage's ideas evolved. Neither Hyman nor Van Sinderen list this edition, apparently only knowing of the edition of 1829. See Origins of Cyberspace 53 and 54 for editions of 1836 and 1848. Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19186)   £180.00
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BABBAGE (Charles and Henry): Scheutz's Difference Engine and Babbage's Mechanical Notation,
First Edition, in: Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. XV 497-514pp royal octavo, the complete volume (vii, 534pp) good clean copy in original cloth, a few early neat library stamps, London Institution Civil Engineers 1856. Van Sinderen no. 70 (n). Origins of Cyberspace, 75. On May 29, 1856, Babbage and his son reported to the Institution of Civil Engineers on Scheutz's Difference Engine no. 2 and on Babbage's system of mechanical notation. The latter is considered to be one of Charles Babbage's most important engineering contributions. The Babbages' reported first on the Scheutz machine in 1855 in a lecture given before the Academie des Sciences. Scheutz's interest in calculating machines had begun twenty-five years earlier when he first heard about Babbage's Difference Engine No. 1. In 1834, after reading Dionysius Lardner's technical article about the Difference Engine (see above) Scheutz and his son began building their own engine, completing a crude prototype model in 1843 and an improved and more highly finished example in the 1850s. In 1854 the Scheutzes took their Engine no.2 to England in the hopes of marketing it. They were introduced to Babbage, who received them with great friendliness and showed a lively interest in their work. He devoted two whole days to investigating Scheutz's engine, for which he had much praise. Photograph available on request. (Book ref. 19188)   £320.00
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