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ROWNTREE (B. Seebohm) and LAVERS (G. R.): Poverty and the Welfare State. A Third Social Survey of York
Dealing only with Economic Questions, First Edition, vi, 104pp 8vo, a good copy in original cloth, London, Longmans, 1951. The third sequel to the pioneering 1901 Poverty, and Rowntree's final publication. This was restricted to an examination of the extent to which poverty in York had been reduced by the operations of the various social services. (Book ref. 20758)   £12.00
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ROWNTREE (B. Seebohm): Poverty. A Study of Town Life.
4th edition, xxi, 426pp plus 4pp advertisements at the end, 8vo, with 14 maps, photographs and diagrams, spine slightly faded but a very good copy in original black lettered red cloth, London, Macmillan, 1902. (Book ref. 20753)   £38.00
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ROWNTREE (B. Seebohm): Poverty and Progress. A Second Social Survey of York,
First Edition, xx, 540pp folio, diagrams and illustrations, an excellent copy, original cloth, with dust wrapper, London, Longmans, 1941. This is Rowntree's follow-up survey of York after his survey of 1901 and is particularly valuable in that it quantifies the changes that occurred between the surveys. "This book is intended to help those interested in social well-being to measure the degree in which a typical provincial city has benefited from the efforts put forth during this century to improve social conditions.." -introduction. (Book ref. 20757)   £50.00
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HOBSON (John Atkinson):: Problems of Poverty, An Inquiry into the Industrial Condition of the Poor,
second edition, revised, 232pp octavo, a fine copy in original cloth, London, Methuen, 1895. First published in 1891 and reaching an eighth edition by 1913, although still rather uncommon in any edition. Factually based on the classic work by Charles Booth, "the object of this volume is to collect, arrange and examine some of the leading facts and forces in modern industrial life which have a direct bearing on Poverty, and to set in the light they afford some of the palliatives and remedies..." - preface. Hobson confirms Booth's findings that half of those in workhouses are there because they are "aged, infirm or sick… In London 22.5% of the aged poor are indoor paupers. The hardness of the battle of life is attested by this number of old men and old women who, in spite of a hard-working life are compelled to end their days as the recipients of public charity…" (p.21-2). (Book ref. 20780)   £50.00
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DRAGE (Geoffrey): The State and the Poor,
First Edition, 264pp small octavo, a very good copy in original cloth, London, Collins, 1914. Chapter III (p.80-101) is on the aged poor. (Book ref. 20782)   £45.00
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DRAGE (Geoffrey): The Problem of the Aged Poor,
First Edition, xvii, 375pp octavo, a very good copy in original cloth, London, Black, 1895. PHOTOGRAPH SENT ON REQUEST. A very valuable detailed response by Drage, who was a Member of Parliament, to the Report of the Royal Commission on the Aged Poor. This he summarises along with the information in Charles Booth's Aged Poor in England and Wales. To this he has added some account of the Poor Law and Old Age Pension system adopted in Germany and Denmark - to date the only countries that had state pensions for the aged in operation. With chapters on: The Recent Inquiry into Old Age Pauperism; Nature of the Evidence before the Aged Poor Commission; Nature of the Evidence in Favour of State Pensions; Extent and Causes of Old Age pauperism and the Means for Meeting it; Present means of Meeting Old Age Poverty; The Poor Law; ditto - Charity and Thrift; General results of Mr Booth's Inquiry into the Condition of the Aged Poor; Old Age Pensions; Old Age Pension Schemes in Operation in other Countries; Extent and Causes of Old Age Pauperism; Remedies Suggested for the Avoidance of Old Age Poverty &c. (Book ref. 20772)   £145.00
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BRIGGS (Asa); ROWNTREE (B. S.): Social Thought and Social Action, a Study of the Work of Seebohm Rowntree 1871-1954,
First Edition, x, 371pp 8vo, a few library stamps (none on title page) a very good copy in original cloth, with dust-wrapper (this a little worn), London, Longmans, 1961. (Book ref. 20752)   £18.00
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BOOTH (Charles): The Aged Poor in England and Wales,
First Edition, vi, [4], 527pp thick royal octavo, slightly rubbed externally but a very good copy in original cloth, old shelf label on spine, London, Macmillan, 1894. PHOTOGRAPH SENT ON REQUEST. In part, the sequel to his earlier Pauperism: a Picture, 1892, but undoubtedly a much more fully worked up piece of research."In the following note on the condition of the Aged Poor in England and Wales, I have tried to bring together and arrange for ready reference and comparison all the official statistics which bear on the question. With these statistics, and deductions drawn from their comparison, are collated reports from local authorities in all parts of the country.The great importance of these comparisons arises from the fact that, as regards the treatment of the old, the Poor Law and regulations of the Local Government Board leave the most complete liberty of administration. Never was there a law less peremptory and exact in its prescriptions. That no one who is willing to ask assistance shall be allowed to die of want is, practically, its sole assertion. It does not even give any "right" to relief, but grips the question solely by making neglect (if any serious consequence ensue) a criminal offence for those responsible for the execution of the law." Preface. "His public advocacy of old age pensions began in 1891 with a paper to the Royal Statistical Society; and subsequently he devoted much time to writing and speaking in favour of old age pensions, especially by endowment, rather than by insurance as advocated by William Lewerey Blackley, in The Aged Poor, 1894, and other books. The passing of the Old Age Pensions Act in 1908 was largely due to the part which he had played in converting public opinion. His main criticism of the Act was that pensions were not granted to all, but only to those whose incomes fell below a certain level." DNBThe present book set out to provide further evidence about the statistics of poverty amongst the aged in order to convince the legislators that a universal old age pension had to become part of the social welfare policy of Britain. For this Booth recruited even more researchers to investigate the condition of the aged poor in all 648 Poor Law Unions in England and Wales. This survey attempted to assess the outcome of the crusade - they confirmed that levels of pauperism rose with age; the ages 70-75 were "the most prolific of pauperism." Booth sought to assess the extent of poverty in old age by seeking the opinions of clergymen, charitable workers and other interested people. He concluded that "the old are altogether much better off in the country than in town... but the condition of many if not most old people even in the rural districts is far from satisfactory. It is abundantly evident that in town and country alike the large majority of the aged when past work are dependent upon someone; either on their children, on the guardians or on the charitable or on all three. They very often live very hard lives..." (Book ref. 20762)   £145.00
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BOOTH (Charles): Pauperism, A Picture - and the Endowment of Old Age, An Argument,
First Edition, viii, 355pp 8vo, a very good copy in original blue cloth, London, Macmillan and Co. 1892. PHOTOGRAPH SENT ON REQUEST. Booth's dream was the provision of a uniform pension as a right for every person of pensionable age, irrespective of background, history, work record or private wealth. This ground-breaking idea was a direct reaction to the searing evidence of the effects of poverty, social misery and deprivation discovered whilst researching his great pioneer inquiry called London Life and Labour. This monumental enquiry was projected, financed and directed by Booth as a private investigator, at a time when there were practically no comprehensive official statistics throwing light on the conditions of life of the London population. It was a time when the public conscience was becoming deeply stirred by the problem of Ahow the poor live@. It was, as we have now come to realise, one of the critical periods in the economic and social history of Britain. Old age is instanced as being one of the great causes of poverty and "age falls heavily on the poor and the case of the aged poor demands special consideration.." The present book was intend to support his demands in this respect by providing irrefutable statistical evidence of aged poverty. (Book ref. 20768)   £140.00
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[BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS] POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS': POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS' REPORT OF 1834.
Copy of the Report Made in 1834 by the Commissioners for Inquiring into the Administration and Practical Operation of the Poor Laws, Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty, 378pp large octavo, a fine copy in original printed blue paper wrappers as issued, [Command 2728], London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1834 [reprinted 1905]. Although this key Report was first published in 1834, it was reprinted here in 1905 when the details of the working of the old Poor Laws were required by the new generation of legislators who were starting to respond to 20thC political demand for a radical change in the way the poor were actually treated in Britain. This text provides the history and legislative background that Beveridge, the Webbs, Lloyd George and others were to react against so strongly against, inspiring them to found the British Welfare State. In particular, it lead to the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws and Relief of Distress of 1909 (see item below) and the famous Minority Report which had as its aim the final destruction of the old poor law described in the present volume.The 1832 Royal Commission into the Operation of the Poor Laws found that the old system was badly and expensively run. The Commission's recommendations were based on two principles. The first was less eligibility - conditions within workhouses should be made worse than the worst conditions outside of the workhouse so that workhouses served as a deterrent - only the most needy would consider entering them. The other was the "workhouse test", that relief should only be available in the workhouse. A problem with this system was the urban rate payers were faced with a dramatic increase in their poor rate because the principle of less eligibility made the rural poor migrate where there was work.There was strong support for the 1832 Royal Commission into the Operation of the Poor Laws from all-sides of Parliament and its ideas were quickly passed into law as The Poor Law Amendment Act (1834), (also known as the New Poor Law). The Whigs controlled the House of Commons and supported the utilitarian arguments of thinkers such as Jeremy Bentham. The Report recommended methods to lower the cost of poor relief (which was a major concern of Members of Parliament) and was based on notions of discipline and frugality. In addition, the Government's aim was to reduce public expenditure and make the poor more responsible for their own well-being: this involved the ending of "outdoor relief" (i.e. help for those outside the workhouse and still in the community) and the setting-up of workhouses which collected all the poor from one area and housed them in highly-controlled punitive institutions. The aim was to dissuade all but the very hopeless from seeking assistance, since poverty was seen as the fault of the individual that should not only be discouraged but even punished. Poor Relief was therefore set at a level below the level of earnings of a labourer "of the lowest class". The Poor Law Amendment act was passed in a context of deciding who among the poor was deserving and who was not. This important link between poverty and morality characterised the 19th century. It was felt by some that to help all poor people would encourage and indeed reward immorality. The workhouse was seen a chance for the deserving poor to show their willingness to work hard in exchange for help at a difficult time in their lives. In so doing, they could regain their self-esteem and their position in society. However, the draconian conditions in the workhouse would dissuade the shirkers from seeking help. (Book ref. 20781)   £90.00
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GEORGE (Henry); copy of L. L. BULLOCK (Sheriff of Placer County, California): Progress and Poverty, An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions, and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth the Remedy,
ONE OF 200 COPIES PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. OF EXCEPTIONAL RARITY. THE GREATEST ECONOMICS BOOK EVER WRITTEN AND PUBLISHED IN THE USA. First Edition, known as the Author's Edition of which ONLY 200 WERE PRINTED, [4], 512pp royal octavo, an excellent fine copy in original publisher's fine-grained cloth, decorated with blind-stamped ornamental borders, spine gilt lettered with the words in gilt at foot of spine: "Author's Edition." spine extremities very expertly repaired, with the ink signature "L. L. Bullock 1879" on the first paste-down, San Francisco, CA, Wm. M. Hinton and Company, 1879. AMEX 184: "This first edition of Progress and Poverty is of exceptional rarity and is often regarded as the greatest economics book written and published in the USA, certainly during the 19thC. The increase of productive power, George argued, had "neither lessened the toil of those who most need respite, nor brought plenty to the poor." "The most influential of American works on economics, this book gave its author an international reputation as prophet and reformer. He proposed to abolish poverty and secure fair distribution of the rewards of labour by appropriating all economic rent by taxation, and abolishing all taxation except on land values. Today, the slogan of the single tax still unites the followers of Henry George.." Grolier, One Hundred Influential American Books Printed before 1900, no. 81. "[Having been refused by a number of publishers] George decided to print the work himself, and Hinton made his plant on Clay Street available. Type in part was actually set by George, Taylor, and Hinton. The work was commenced in May, 1879, and was completed in September... Copies were sent to various publishers including Appleton & Co.; this led to a reply that Appleton would publish the book if given the original plates. The offer was accepted, and the first trade edition appeared in 1880. After a slow start the book became a runaway best seller. One can count on the fingers of one hand the number of treatises on economics printed before 1880 which are in print today; certainly it may be said that Progress and Poverty has had a wider circulation and a broader influence than any similar work. The book's true importance is the fact that it has led thousands to think about the economic facts of life and the problems of good government. In this book multitudes have met for the first time the terms capital, wages, rent, and interest in their economic sense; here other thousands for the first time have met the early stalwarts, Malthus, Mill, Ricardo, Quesnay, and Adam Smith. Progress and Poverty finds its real significance in the fact that it is a book which has provoked the minds of men... The first edition is easily recognizable because it is the only one bearing the date 1879 on the title page and the only one showing Hinton as the printer [and which has] the words Author's Edition on the spine..." Kenneth M. Johnson, 'Progress and Poverty a Paradox'. PROVENANCE: The original owner, L. L. Bullock, was Sheriff of Placer County California (1858) and later (1871) a member of the Board of Tide Land Commissioners, San Francisco (California) and, as such, his name appears on a number of extant Californian Sale Maps of salt marsh and tide lands. (Book ref. 20467)   £7000.00
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BEVERIDGE (William Henry): Social Insurance and Allied Services. Report by Sir William Beveridge. Presented to Parliament by command of His Majesty,
[Cmd. 6404]. 8vo., 299 + (1)pp., original stapled printed wrappers, London: H.M.S.O., 1942. [with] Social Insurance and Allied Services, Memoranda from Organisations. Appendix G to Report by Sir William Beveridge. Presented to Parliament by command of His Majesty November 1942. [Cmd. 6405]. 8vo., iii + (i) + 244pp., original stapled printed wrappers, London: H.M.S.O., 1942. The rare complete work - with the very important appendix that is often missing. The blueprint for the post-war state. 'In 1941 Beveridge was appointed chairman of the Inter-departmental Committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services. This was in fact a one-man operation; the civil servants on the committee were no more than investigators who took instructions from the chairman. The following year brought the result of the committee's work, the Beveridge Report, which was an instant popular success and carried the name of Beveridge to millions, in and out of the armed services. ... The report contributed in no small degree to the Labour party's victory in 1945, after which it was implemented by the Labour government's social legislation'. [IESS] The Report was 'To undertake, with special reference to the inter-relation of the schemes, a survey of the existing national schemes of social insurance and allied services, including workmen's compensation, and to make recommendations.' (Book ref. 20434)   £220.00
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WEBB (BEATRICE and SIDNEY): A Fine Collection of 115 items, including two Autograph Letters, Books (five of which inscribed signed copies) and Pamphlets
The Webbs were co-founders of the modern welfare state and the first historians of poverty in Britain. FURTHER DETAILS, DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE AND PHOTOGRAPHS ON REQUEST. "Beatrice and Sidney Webb can, with Lloyd George and Beveridge, justly be said to be the founders of the modern welfare state…They believed that it was the duty of the state to provide a safety net of basic welfare services, from education through to housing and health for all its citizens…They laid down a blueprint for the development of welfare programmes to cater for the sick, the aged and the unemployed… [They had] a profound belief that society needed to be changed, and that its individualistic and selfish attitudes could be transformed into a moral order. Their philosophy was also based on a belief in a meritocracy to be achieved through the provision of equal opportunities for all, while public service was seen as an intrinsic duty. Their approach was pragmatic, evolutionary and collectivist and founded on a deep commitment to a democratic pluralist state" - Radice, p.7-8. PROVENANCE: Some of the items in this collection passed through family descent from Beatrice and Sidney Webb to Beatrice's niece Barbara Drake (1876-1967); thence to her great-nephew Nicholas Meinertzhagen. Some of the books have his pencilled signature. (Book ref. 20143)   £5500.00
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PARLIAMENT: BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS: CHILDRENS' EMPLOYMENT: IRISH UNIVERSITY PRESS: CHILDRENS' EMPLOYMENT
(Industrial Revolution section) 15 volumes large folio. FURTHER DETAILS OF CONTENTS & PHOTOGRAPHS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST. As well as the abuse of child labour, this set also includes material on other abuses of the industrial system. Topics covered include: chimney sweeps; child factory labour; children in mines; women and children in bleaching and dyeing establishments &c. Comprising: Employment of Children in the Manufactories of the UK and in Sweeping Chimneys, 1816-7; Regulation of the Labour of Children in the Mills and Factories, 1831-2; Employment of Children in Factories, 1833-4; Employment and Conditions of Children in Mines and Manufactories, 1842-3; Employment of Women and Children in Bleaching and Dyeing Establishments, 1857-8; Employment of Children and Young Persons in Trades and manufactures not already Regulated by Law, 1863-7. * The British Parliamentary Papers of the nineteenth century contain vital source material to students of history, commerce, economics, sociology and law. * PHOTOGRAPHS & FURTHER DETAILS OF CONTENTS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST. There are approximately 5,000 British Parliamentary Papers for the period 1800 to 1900 - a mountain of source material that, however, because of its traditional chronological arrangement, has been difficult to access. The Irish University Press programme of facsimile reprints of these papers overcame this by commissioning academic specialists to select the most important papers and group them on the principle of 32 subject sets in the folio size of the originals. This series was published c.1960-1972. All the volumes are strongly bound in the publisher's original half green morocco leather with the exception of 1 volume which is bound in the publisher's matching green buckram. They are designed to outlast generations of heavy use and wear and have the great advantage over the original printings because on a strong laid acid free paper. Reproductions of original maps and other illustrations are included throughout the series. Each volume now offered has neat library stamp on front endpaper and verso title, otherwise entirely unmarked and in excellent condition. (Book ref. 20067)   £600.00
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PARLIAMENT: BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS: CHILDRENS' EMPLOYMENT: IRISH UNIVERSITY PRESS: CHILDRENS' EMPLOYMENT
(Industrial Revolution section) 15 volumes large folio. FURTHER DETAILS OF CONTENTS & PHOTOGRAPHS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST. As well as the abuse of child labour, this set also includes material on other abuses of the industrial system. Topics covered include: chimney sweeps; child factory labour; children in mines; women and children in bleaching and dyeing establishments &c. Comprising: Employment of Children in the Manufactories of the UK and in Sweeping Chimneys, 1816-7; Regulation of the Labour of Children in the Mills and Factories, 1831-2; Employment of Children in Factories, 1833-4; Employment and Conditions of Children in Mines and Manufactories, 1842-3; Employment of Women and Children in Bleaching and Dyeing Establishments, 1857-8; Employment of Children and Young Persons in Trades and manufactures not already Regulated by Law, 1863-7. * The British Parliamentary Papers of the nineteenth century contain vital source material to students of history, commerce, economics, sociology and law. There are approximately 5,000 British Parliamentary Papers for the period 1800 to 1900 - a mountain of source material that, however, because of its traditional chronological arrangement, has been difficult to access. The Irish University Press programme of facsimile reprints of these papers overcame this by commissioning academic specialists to select the most important papers and group them on the principle of 32 subject sets in the folio size of the originals. This series was published c.1960-1972. All the volumes are strongly bound in the publisher's original half green morocco leather. They are designed to outlast generations of heavy use and wear and have the great advantage over the original printings because on a strong laid acid free paper. Reproductions of original maps and other illustrations are included throughout the series. Each volume now offered has neat library stamp on front endpaper and verso title, otherwise entirely unmarked and in excellent condition. (Book ref. 20068)   £600.00
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BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS: IRISH UNIVERSITY PRESS: POOR LAW
30 volumes large folio. * PHOTOGRAPHS & FURTHER DETAILS OF CONTENTS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST. The importance of the Poor Law Parliamentary Papers can be fully appreciated once it is realized that (1) the 'welfare state' developed as a gradual extension of the system of poor relief, (2) the establishment of poor law unions had an important bearing on the subsequent development of local government. After the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 there was little fundamental change on the statute books in relation to the relief of poverty during the nineteenth century. Eighteen volumes of the Irish University Press Poor Law set of parliamentary papers are devoted to the 1834 reform and its aftermath. The report of the Royal Commission which recommended the reforms takes up eleven volumes and the remaining seven comprise the extensive select committee reports on the operation of the new law. The laws of settlement and removal are the subject of a further seven volumes of the series. * There are approximately 5,000 British Parliamentary Papers for the period 1800 to 1900 - a mountain of source material that, however, because of its traditional chronological arrangement, has been difficult to access. The Irish University Press programme of facsimile reprints of these papers overcame this by commissioning academic specialists to select the most important papers and group them on the principle of 32 subject sets in the folio size of the originals. This series was published c.1960-1972. All the volumes are strongly bound in the publisher's original half green morocco leather with the exception of 2 volumes which are bound in the publisher's matching green buckram. They are designed to outlast generations of heavy use and wear and have the great advantage over the original printings because on a strong laid acid free paper. Reproductions of original maps and other illustrations are included throughout the series. Each volume now offered has neat library stamp on front endpaper and verso title, otherwise entirely unmarked and in excellent condition. (Book ref. 20088)   £1800.00
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POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS;: Seventh Annual Report of the Poor Law Commisioners for England and Wales,
543pp., octavo, original cloth, lacking spine but a very good copy in original cloth, ex library copy, London, Clowes, for HMSO, 1841. (Book ref. 19965)   £40.00
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POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS;: Seventh Annual Report of the Poor Law Commisioners for England and Wales,
543pp., octavo, original cloth, very good copy in original cloth, front endpaper torn out, inner hinge broken, London, Clowes, for HMSO, 1841. (Book ref. 19962)   £50.00
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POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS;: Second Annual Report of the Poor Law Commisioners for England and Wales,
640pp., octavo, original cloth, very good copy in original cloth, spine slightly torn at top of hinges, London, Clowes, for HMSO, 1836. (Book ref. 19959)   £50.00
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POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS;: Second Annual Report of the Poor Law Commisioners for England and Wales,
640pp., octavo, original cloth, very good copy in original cloth, case loose, London, Clowes, for HMSO, 1836. (Book ref. 19960)   £50.00
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